Cryptographic Key Length Recommendation

In most cryptographic functions, the key length is an important security parameter. Both academic and private organizations provide recommendations and mathematical formulas to approximate the minimum key size requirement for security. Despite the availability of these publications, choosing an appropriate key size to protect your system from attacks remains a headache as you need to read and understand all these papers.

This web site implements mathematical formulas and summarizes reports from well-known organizations allowing you to quickly evaluate the minimum security requirements for your system. You can also easily compare all these techniques and find the appropriate key length for your desired level of protection. The lengths provided here are designed to resist mathematic attacks; they do not take algorithmic attacks, hardware flaws, etc. into account.

Choose a Method
NSA's goal in presenting the Commercial National Security Algorithm (CNSA) Suite [6] is to provide industry with a common set of cryptographic algorithms that they can use to create products that meet the needs of the widest range of US Government needs.
Type Symmetric Factoring (modulus) Elliptic Curve Hash
Up to Top Secret 256 3072 384 384
All key sizes are provided in bits. These are the minimal sizes for security.
Click on a value to compare it with other methods.
NSA will initiate a transition to quantum resistant algorithms in the not too distant future. Until this new suite is developed and products are available implementing the quantum resistant suite, NSA will rely on current algorithms. For those partners and vendors that have not yet made the transition to CNSA suite elliptic curve algorithms, the NSA recommend not making a significant expenditure to do so at this point but instead to prepare for the upcoming quantum resistant algorithm transition.

This FAQ provides answers to commonly asked questions regarding the Commercial National Security Algorithm (CNSA) Suite, Quantum Computing and CNSS Advisory Memorandum 02-15.

CNSA suite includes cryptographic algorithms for encryption, hashing, digital signatures and key exchange:
Encryption: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - FIPS 197
Hashing: Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) - FIPS 180-4
Digital Signature: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) - FIPS 186-4
Digital Signature: RSA - FIPS 186-4
Key Exchange: Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) - NIST SP 800-56A
Key Exchange: Diffie-Hellman (DH) - IETF RFC 3526
Key Exchange: RSA - NIST SP 800-56B
© 2024 BlueKrypt - v 32.3 - May 24, 2020
Author: Damien Giry
Approved by Prof. Jean-Jacques Quisquater
Surveys of laws and regulations on cryptology: Crypto Law Survey / Digital Signature Law Survey.
Bibliography[1] Selecting Cryptographic Key Sizes, Arjen K. Lenstra and Eric R. Verheul, Journal Of Cryptology, vol. 14, p. 255-293, 2001.
[2] Key Lengths, Arjen K. Lenstra, The Handbook of Information Security, 06/2004.
[3] Algorithms, Key Size and Protocols Report (2018), H2020-ICT-2014 – Project 645421, D5.4, ECRYPT-CSA, 02/2018.
[4] Recommendation for Key Management, Special Publication 800-57 Part 1 Rev. 5, NIST, 05/2020.
[5] Mécanismes cryptographiques - Règles et recommandations, Rev. 2.03, ANSSI , 02/2014.
[6] Commercial National Security Algorithm, National Security Agency (NSA), 01/2016.
[7] Determining Strengths for Public Keys Used for Exchanging Symmetric Keys, RFC 3766, H. Orman and P. Hoffman, 04/2004.
[8] Cryptographic Mechanisms: Recommendations and Key Lengths, TR-02102-1 v2020-01, BSI, 03/2020.
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